Access to the last mile of telephone lines into European homes or, as specialists say, the unbundling of the local loop (ULL), is essential to develop competition for the benefit of consumers and put broadband Internet within the reach of citizens.
Unbundling of the local loop, either in the form of full unbundling or of shared access, was mandated by a European Regulation of December 2000 and subsequently extended to the whole EEA area.
As competition law applies irrespective of the regulatory tool, the Commission and the EFTA Surveillance Authority decided in July 1999, in the framework of their respective competition powers, to launch a sector enquiry on local loop unbundling.
Study (May 2004)
Pricing methodologies for unbundled access to the local loop (May 2004)
This study was a follow-up of the European Commission and the EFTA Surveillance Authority sector enquiry to review the competitive situation in the local loop in the European Economic Area (EEA). The study was carried out by Europe Economics for the European Commission.
Final report (3 March 2002)
Legal study on part II of the local loop sectoral inquiry . This study was carried out by Squire Sanders for the European Commission and the EFTA Surveillance Authority. (February 2002)
Annexes to the legal study:
- Annex 1: Questionnaire to operators (new entrants)
- Annex 2: Glossary of terms
- Annex 3: Particular problems identified by access seekers
- Annex 4: EEA State reports
- Annex 5: LLU Services Offered Across the EEA States
- Annex 6: Number of Responses to the Questionnaire
For a short overview read the press release: "Slow progress in unbundling of the local loop: Commission publishes report on sector enquiry", IP/02/348, 01.03.2002.
Public hearing (8 July 2002)
- Opening Speech by Commissioner Mario Monti: Getting competition in local access
- Latest progress in LLU as reflected by the sector inquiry (en) - Pierre Buigues, European Commission.
Industry views on local loop unbundling- the new entrants
- High speed data access: how to develop competition? (en) - Frank Esser, Cegetel.
- Local loop unbundling in Germany: the broadband perspective (en) - Gerd Eickers, QSC.
- x DSL: no competition without interconnection (en) - Renato Soru, Tiscali.
- The new entrants (en) - Tommaso Pompei, Wind.
- Statement by Graham Wallace (en) - Cable and Wireless.
Industry views on local loop unbundling- the incumbents
- Local loop unbundling and broadband development in Europe (en) - Marc Fossier, France Telecom.
- Presentation by Rafael Diez (en) - Vega Telefonica.
- Statement by Wolfgang Kopf (en) - Deutsche Telekom.
- Infrastructure competition in Austria. The incumbent's view on the liberalised market. (en) - Stefan Köhler, TAustria.
- Broadband development: the need for a technology neutral approach (en) - Paul Maertens, Belgacom.
- Is lack of infrastructure competition caused by price distorsions? (en) - Lennart Asplund, Telia.
- Presentation by John Dickie (en) - ECTA.
- Presentation by Christian Hocepied (en) - European Commission.
- Presentation by M. Camanzi (en) - TItalia.
- LLU charges and prize squeeze: the failure of regulation (en) - Andrea Costa, Wind.
- Competition distortion in the German local access market (en) - Thomas Plückebaum, ISIS.
- ISPs & broadband access competition in Europe (en) - Simon Hampton, AOL.
The principle of non-discrimination
- The principle of "non-discrimination". Possible remedies. (fr) - Richard Lalande, AFORS.
- The principle of non-discrimination in the ADSL market (en) - Javier Valiente, EuroISPA.
- Presentation by Colin Long (en) Olswang.
- Presentation by Simon Gray (en) EarthLease.
Press release: Unbundling of the local loop: Commission calls public hearing. IP/02/849, 12.06.2002
Opening of the inquiry (2000)
- Purpose and method of the sector inquiry ( press release IP/00/765, 12.07.2000)
- Questionnaire addressed to incumbent operators